OpenSSL 自签多域名或IP HTTPS证书

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生成证书请求文件

对于一个通用的ssl证书请求文件(CSR),openssl不需要很多操作。
因为我们可能需要添加一个或者两个SAN到我们CSR,我们需要在openssl配置文件中添加一些东西:你需要告诉openssl创建一个包含x509 V3扩展的CSR,并且你也需要告诉openssl在你的CSR中包含subject alternative names列表。

创建一个openssl配置文件(openssl.cnf),并启用subject alternative names:

找到req段落。这段落的内容将会告诉openssl如何去处理证书请求(CSR)。
在req段落中应该要包含一个以req_extensions开始的行。如下:

[req]
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
req_extensions = v3_req

这个配置是告诉opensslCSR中要包含v3_req段落的部分。
现在我们来配置v3_req,如下:

[req_distinguished_name]
countryName = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default = US
stateOrProvinceName = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default = MN
localityName = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default = Minneapolis
organizationalUnitName  = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
organizationalUnitName_default  = Domain Control Validated
commonName = Internet Widgits Ltd
commonName_max  = 64

[ v3_req ]
# Extensions to add to a certificate request
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names

[alt_names]
DNS.1 = a.com
DNS.2 = *.b.com
DNS.3 = *.c.com
IP.1 = 192.168.1.1
IP.2 = 127.0.0.1

请注意:无论v3_req放哪里,都是可以的,都会在所有生成的CSR中。
要是之后,你又想生成一个不同的SANsCSR文件,你需要编辑这个配置文件,并改变DNS.x列表。

生成私钥

首先我们创建一个私钥:

openssl genrsa -out san_domain_com.key 2048
# 如果是生成ca的使用,建议这样
openssl genrsa -out ca.key 2048

这里的san_domain_com,是你正式使用的服务器的全称地址,这不是必须的,也就是说,你可以随便取名字;但是按照这个格式去,会更清晰点。

创建CSR文件

执行下面语句:

openssl req -new -out san_domain_com.csr -key san_domain_com.key -config openssl.cnf
# 注意这里指定了openssl.cnf,使用了上面我们创建的,因为默认是没有`san`。
# 如果之前创建的是ca.key
openssl req -new -out ca.csr -key c.key -confaig openssl.cnf

执行后,系统会提示你要你输入组织信息,并询问你是否想要包含密码(你可以不需要)。接着你将会看到san_domain_com.csr被创建。

检查我们是否创建好了,我们可以使用下面的命令来查看CSR包含的信息:

openssl req -text -noout -in san_domain_com.csr
# 如果是ca.csr
openssl req -text -noout -in ca.csr

好了现在我们有了一个新的CSR,接着我们需要对它进行签署。

自签名并创建证书

openssl x509 -req -days 36500 -in san_domain_com.csr -signkey san_domain_com.key -out san_domain_com.crt -extensions v3_req -extfile openssl.cnf

# 如果是ca.csr
openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in ca.csr -signkey ca.key
 -out ca.crt-extensions v3_req -extfile openssl.cnf

说明下:上面的证书 有效期是36500天。

附录(openssl.conf配置实例)

#
# OpenSSL example configuration file.
# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
#

# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
# defined.
HOME            = .
RANDFILE        = $ENV::HOME/.rnd

# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
#oid_file        = $ENV::HOME/.oid
oid_section        = new_oids

# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
# "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the
# X.509v3 extensions to use:
# extensions        = 
# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)

[ new_oids ]

# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca', 'req' and 'ts'.
# Add a simple OID like this:
# testoid1=1.2.3.4
# Or use config file substitution like this:
# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6

# Policies used by the TSA examples.
tsa_policy1 = 1.2.3.4.1
tsa_policy2 = 1.2.3.4.5.6
tsa_policy3 = 1.2.3.4.5.7

####################################################################
[ ca ]
default_ca    = CA_default        # The default ca section

####################################################################
[ CA_default ]

dir        = ./demoCA        # Where everything is kept
certs        = $dir/certs        # Where the issued certs are kept
crl_dir        = $dir/crl        # Where the issued crl are kept
database    = $dir/index.txt    # database index file.
#unique_subject    = no            # Set to 'no' to allow creation of
                    # several ctificates with same subject.
new_certs_dir    = $dir/newcerts        # default place for new certs.

certificate    = $dir/cacert.pem     # The CA certificate
serial        = $dir/serial         # The current serial number
crlnumber    = $dir/crlnumber    # the current crl number
                    # must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL
crl        = $dir/crl.pem         # The current CRL
private_key    = $dir/private/cakey.pem# The private key
RANDFILE    = $dir/private/.rand    # private random number file

x509_extensions    = usr_cert        # The extentions to add to the cert

# Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"
# (and highly broken) format.
name_opt     = ca_default        # Subject Name options
cert_opt     = ca_default        # Certificate field options

# Extension copying option: use with caution.
# copy_extensions = copy

# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
# crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.
# crl_extensions    = crl_ext

default_days    = 3650            # how long to certify for
default_crl_days= 30            # how long before next CRL
default_md    = default        # use public key default MD
preserve    = no            # keep passed DN ordering

# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
# and supplied fields are just that :-)
policy        = policy_match

# For the CA policy
[ policy_match ]
countryName        = match
stateOrProvinceName    = match
organizationName    = match
organizationalUnitName    = optional
commonName        = supplied
emailAddress        = optional

# For the 'anything' policy
# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
# types.
[ policy_anything ]
countryName        = optional
stateOrProvinceName    = optional
localityName        = optional
organizationName    = optional
organizationalUnitName    = optional
commonName        = supplied
emailAddress        = optional

####################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits        = 2048
default_keyfile     = privkey.pem
distinguished_name    = req_distinguished_name
attributes        = req_attributes
x509_extensions    = v3_ca    # The extentions to add to the self signed cert

# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
# input_password = secret
# output_password = secret

# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options. 
# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
# pkix     : PrintableString, BMPString (PKIX recommendation before 2004)
# utf8only: only UTF8Strings (PKIX recommendation after 2004).
# nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
# WARNING: ancient versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings.
string_mask = utf8only

 req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request

[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName            = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default        = AU
countryName_min            = 2
countryName_max            = 2

stateOrProvinceName        = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default    = Some-State

localityName            = Locality Name (eg, city)

0.organizationName        = Organization Name (eg, company)
0.organizationName_default    = Internet Widgits Pty Ltd

# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
#1.organizationName        = Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default    = World Wide Web Pty Ltd

organizationalUnitName        = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
#organizationalUnitName_default    =

commonName            = Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name)
commonName_max            = 64

emailAddress            = Email Address
emailAddress_max        = 64

# SET-ex3            = SET extension number 3

[ req_attributes ]
challengePassword        = A challenge password
challengePassword_min        = 4
challengePassword_max        = 20

unstructuredName        = An optional company name

[ usr_cert ]

# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType            = server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment            = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

#nsCaRevocationUrl        = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName

# This is required for TSA certificates.
# extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping

[ v3_req ]

# Extensions to add to a certificate request

basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names

[alt_names]
DNS.1 = *.a.com
DNS.2 = *.b.com
DNS.3 = *.c.com
DNS.4 = *.d.com
DNS.5 = *.e.com
DNS.6 = *.f.com
DNS.7 = *.g.com
DNS.8 = *.h.com
DNS.9 = *.i.com
DNS.10 = *.j.com
DNS.11 = *.k.com
DNS.20 = *.l.com
DNS.12 = *.m.com
DNS.13 = *.n.com
DNS.14 = *.o.com
DNS.15 = *.p.com
DNS.16 = *.q.com
DNS.17 = *.r.com
DNS.18 = *.s.com
DNS.19 = *.t.com
DNS.20 = *.u.com
DNS.21 = *.v.com
DNS.22 = *.w.com
DNS.23 = *.x.com
DNS.24 = *.y.com
DNS.25 = *.z.com
IP.1 = 127.0.0.1

[ v3_ca ]


# Extensions for a typical CA


# PKIX recommendation.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer

# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical
# extensions.
#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
# So we do this instead.
basicConstraints = CA:true

# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
# left out by default.
# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign

# Some might want this also
# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA

# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# Copy issuer details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
# obj=DER:02:03
# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
# You can even override a supported extension:
# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF

[ crl_ext ]

# CRL extensions.
# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always

[ proxy_cert_ext ]
# These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType            = server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment            = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

#nsCaRevocationUrl        = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName

# This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.
proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo

####################################################################
[ tsa ]

default_tsa = tsa_config1    # the default TSA section

[ tsa_config1 ]

# These are used by the TSA reply generation only.
dir        = ./demoCA        # TSA root directory
serial        = $dir/tsaserial    # The current serial number (mandatory)
crypto_device    = builtin        # OpenSSL engine to use for signing
signer_cert    = $dir/tsacert.pem     # The TSA signing certificate
                    # (optional)
certs        = $dir/cacert.pem    # Certificate chain to include in reply
                    # (optional)
signer_key    = $dir/private/tsakey.pem # The TSA private key (optional)

default_policy    = tsa_policy1        # Policy if request did not specify it
                    # (optional)
other_policies    = tsa_policy2, tsa_policy3    # acceptable policies (optional)
digests        = md5, sha1        # Acceptable message digests (mandatory)
accuracy    = secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100    # (optional)
clock_precision_digits  = 0    # number of digits after dot. (optional)
ordering        = yes    # Is ordering defined for timestamps?
                # (optional, default: no)
tsa_name        = yes    # Must the TSA name be included in the reply?
                # (optional, default: no)
ess_cert_id_chain    = no    # Must the ESS cert id chain be included?
                # (optional, default: no)
发布于 2019-12-08 00:01:35
阅读:2 0 2019-12-08
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